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There are lots of different types of glaucoma but the most common type is called Chronic Simple Glaucoma. It is a condition that gets more common with age.

Across the UK the prevalence of the condition is around two per cent for people over the age of 40 years. This prevalence rate increases to around six per cent in people over the age of 65 years. And people of African origin are more likely to be affected.
Experts also say if you have a brother or a sister affected you are much more likely to develop the condition.

Other types of Glaucoma:

blurred vision eye condition

Congenital glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma, also known as childhood glaucoma, is rare but affects children and young people. It is categorised as either primary or secondary. Primary glaucoma does not develop from an illness or condition. Secondary congenital glaucoma can develop from an injury or disorder.

Acute angle-closure glaucoma

Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency. If you are diagnosed with this condition, you will need urgent treatment to reduce the pressure in your eye. This generally will require both medication and laser or other surgical procedures.


One of the major problems with chronic glaucoma is diagnosis. There are few symptoms until the condition is advanced.
It begins as an increase in pressure inside the eyes and this persists over a period of time. This then progresses to cause damage at the back of the eye and when the nerves at the back of the eye are damaged it then goes on to cause peripheral vision problems.
The brain compensates for any initial peripheral vision loss so potential blank patches in vision won’t be noticed. Gradually these blank passages will enlarge and affect your central vision.
In order to identify glaucoma, the eye pressure can be measured which is a good indicator whether something is wrong. Also, the optic nerve can be investigated using specialist equipment.
A visual test field can also be performed. There needs to be a 30 per cent performance loss before a visual field test can pick up any abnormality which is why your specialist can also use other specific instrumentation.


The main treatment for glaucoma is eye drop therapy. Importantly patients need to continue to use drops as long as their GP says it is necessary. It can be a case of using drops ‘long term, over the course of the rest of their life to prevent any sight loss.
Alternatively patients can have laser surgery which is painless and can be done as a day case procedure. It takes a matter of minutes.
Another possibility is MIGS or minimally invasive glaucoma surgery. This is a surgical option to reduce eye pressure. This type of surgery is often combined with cataract surgery. There are a number of types available.
If, following eye drop treatment and laser surgery it’s deemed that the glaucoma is progressing then it is possible to have another operation.
The aim of this operation is to release fluid from inside the eye to the outside by creating an artificial passage through the white of the eye.
However, over a period of time the surgery can become less efficient. It is very rare to lose sight from glaucoma provided patients present at an early stage. You can get a test at your local opticians.

Preventing or controlling high eye pressure

There are a number of ways in which raised eye pressure and eye health can be prevented and improved.


Taking prescribed medication exactly as indicated is the best first step in managing your condition.


Regular exercise can reduce eye pressure in open-angle glaucoma.


A healthy diet, rich in essential minerals such as Vitamins C, E and K is beneficial for overall health, though it cannot prevent glaucoma worsening.


Elevating your head by using a wedge or pillow has been shown to reduce intraocular pressure while you sleep.


High-caffeine consumption can be linked with increased eye pressure.

New treatments

According to the Glaucoma Research Foundation’s most recent annual conference, a symposium addressed the topic of “New Medication Delivery Systems for Glaucoma.”

This discussion highlighted advances in the delivery of anti-glaucoma medications and innovations in the science and technology around the condition.
Some new options included implantable extended-release devices, microneedle-injection devices, and micro-dosing technology.

Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma (AACG)

Congenital glaucoma, also known as childhood glaucoma, is rare but affects children and young people. It is categorised as either primary or secondary. Primary glaucoma does not develop from an illness or condition. Secondary congenital glaucoma can develop from an injury or disorder.
This is where the aqueous humour (an internal eye fluid) dains through the trabecular meshwork. If this angle becomes too narrow, it can block this drainage and cause the pressure in the eye to rapidly and dramatically increase. This typically causes pain, a red eye, hazy vision and possible halos around lights. If untreated or treatment is delayed AACG can cause serious loss of vision. The treatment of an event of Angle Closure is an Ocular Emergency.
People who are prone to AACG include those with advanced cataracts, patients with moderate to high long sightedness and people with a family history of AACG.
There are surgical procedures available to reduce your risk of developing AACG. These include:

We offer all of the above treatments at Laser Vision Scotland. Make an appointment to discuss with us the best procedure for you.

At a Laser Vision Scotland assessment one of our Consultant lead Optometrist team will carry out a selection of tests to allow them, yourself and one of our Surgeons to discuss the best preventative procedure for you.
acute angle closure glaucoma

Laser surgery can be used to treat a host of conditions that cause Glaucoma. Book an appointment to speak to Laser Vision Scotland about your best treatment options.